A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Z

A #

Arabica #

Coffea arabica. The primary species of coffee grown for specialty coffee, considered to have the most desirable flavor of coffee species. Arabica plants take about 3-5 years to fully mature and start producing fruit, and some varieties are quite delicate and susceptible to disease, environmental conditions, and pests.

Aroma #

Often referred to as a nose or bouquet, Aroma is the fragrance of brewed coffee. Coffee aroma has a pleasant smell and is produced from all of the factors that go into different types of coffee (roast, taste, strength, etc).

Automatic/fully-automatic machines #

Automatic/fully-automatic Espresso machines usually include dosing or time controls as well as other functionality. They will have extra buttons for single/double shots, and the machine will stop the shot when the button’s programmed cycle is complete. On commercial Italian automatic machines for example, it’s common to have the following program buttons: single short, double short, single normal, double normal, single long, double long, and continuous flow (semi-auto).

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B #

Barista #

A barista is a person whose job involves making and serving coffee drinks as a profession. Barista is an Italian word, where it means male or female “bartender” or someone who works at a counter.

Batch Brew #

An automatic method of making coffee that uses paper filters and ground coffee. The Batch Brew method is a pour-over and usually makes from ½ gallon to 1-1/2 gallons of fresh coffee. The machine will brew coffee using pulses which agitates while wetting the coffee, and then pours more water over the coffee in a cycle. This method is a very reliable and consistent brewing system. Batch Brew gives the operator the ability to program the machine to make the coffee and this removes much of the human error.

Bean-to-Cup #

A bean-to-cup coffee machine grinds fresh coffee beans and steams fresh milk internally at the push of a button, producing coffee on-demand. Bean-to-cup machines reduce the demand on the quality of the barista, and many are self-service. By grinding coffee automatically and texturizing milk to a high level of quality, bean-to-cup machines are a great option for delivering fresh, consistent, quality coffee without the need for a trained and experienced barista.

Bitter #

Often a dreaded word in the coffee business, bitterness is perceived at the back of the tongue. But it’s not always a negative term. Dark Roasts can be intentionally bitter. And a small amount of bitterness can help the complexity of flavors.

Bland #

Sometimes caused by under-extraction, the term “bland” is often used to describe low-elevation robusta coffees. Also referred to as a neutral flavor, pale.

Blend #

Often referred to as a composition of two or more coffee varietals, mostly from the same coffee growing region. A “blend” can add complexity and interest to a batch brew.

Bloom #

An initial stage of brewing where a small amount of water is poured onto the grounds to allow them to saturate. Fresh coffee, up to about three weeks after roasting, contains CO2 and some other gases trapped within the cellulose structure of the beans. Once saturated with water, these gases release more freely and can cause unevenness in extraction. A bloom phase allows the gas to escape before getting more of the extraction underway. It also helps relieve the gas buildup that might cause the brew bed to overflow as more water is added.

Brewing Methods #

Coffee brewing methods include batch brew, bean-to-cup, drip brew, pour-over, etc.

Brewing Ratio #

Expressed as a ratio of ground coffee mass to brew water mass or ground coffee mass to beverage mass (for espresso). Ratios are expressed in nonspecific terms, like 1:16 instead of the equivalent 45:720, and are intended to be scalable. Ratios are always expressed in mass, usually in grams. They cannot reasonably be converted to volume, because the density of ground coffee is usually unknown. The water component is always the larger number, the denominator. Common brew ratios include 1:15 – 1:17 for brewed coffee, 1:5 – 1:10 for cold brew (which is often brewed strong and intended to be diluted for serving), and 1:1 – 1:2.5 for espresso. Lower values for water/beverage represent "higher" ratios – i.e. the 1:2 ratio often found in espresso brewing is a high ratio and represents a very strong coffee beverage.

Bright #

Sharp acidity, tanginess, that the right amount of acidity in coffee contributes to the brightness of coffee.

Briny #

Excessive heat or over-brewing can create a salty sensation in coffee that can be considered "briny." Best to brew a new batch of coffee to eliminate the possibility.

Burrs #

Traditionally crafted from cast iron or metal and very sharp, a “burr” is the cutting mechanism in a commercial coffee grinder. They cut, versus crush, coffee beans.

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C #

Café Americano #

An American drip coffee with an Italian slant. Prepared from equal portions of espresso and boiling water, rather than hot water filtering through ground coffee beans, a café Americano has the flavor of a stronger version of brewed coffee. 

Café au lait #

Equal parts of brewed coffee and steamed milk.  This is a traditionally French drink which is also very popular in New Orleans and often served with beignets - a fried, doughy breakfast treat. 

Café breve #

A café breve is a milk-based espresso where half-and-half is used in lieu of milk.  It’s richer and creamier, half and half makes the café breve a decadent choice.  Half and half also increases the amount of foam in this drink, making it fluffier than a typical latte. 

Café con leche #

Made with 1.5 ounces of espresso and steamed milk that fills an 8 oz cup.  A tasty Spanish version is a café au lait or Italian caffe e latte.  It is traditional to add sugar or a pinch of salt to café con leche, according to taste.  Originated in Spain, it is also common in Latin America and around the world. 

Café mocha #

Contains espresso, chocolate syrup, and steamed milk, often topped with whipped cream and cocoa powder or chocolate shavings. It’s a variation of a latte, but with chocolate added. 

Cappuccino #

This is a very small drink created with espresso and steamed milk, with a light layer of foam. Not every operation will consider these three espresso beverages to be the same, but they are often prepared similarly and just as often are indistinct from each other. The Gibraltar is named specifically for the glass it is served in. Usually the overall volume of these drinks is between 5-6 fl oz, and they are often made with a double shot of espresso for a strong coffee flavor. Often they are served in small rocks glasses but may be served in a ceramic vessel as well.

Cappuccino Dispenser #

A powdered beverage mixing and dispensing machine which combines a powdered beverage substance and water to produce a desired beverage, for example cappuccino, hot chocolate, as well as other beverages which may be provided in powdered form. The unit includes at least one hopper having a powdered beverage stirring and dispensing mechanism which stirs the powder to further prevent caking and to controllably dispense a desired quantity of powder from the hopper. A water dispensing system is coupled to controllably dispense a quantity of water for mixing with a quantity of powder dispensed from the hopper. A mixing assembly communicates with the hopper and with the water dispensing system to combine powder.

Chaff #

Chaff is a product of roasting, comprised of the silverskin or epidermis of the coffee seeds. During roasting, this thin, papery layer of cellulose loses its moisture and begins to flake or peel off the coffee beans.

Chemex #

A device invented by Dr. Peter Schlumbohm in the 1930s, inspired by the laboratory glassware he knew so well as a chemist. The distinctive hourglass shape of the Chemex is derived from the shape of an Erlenmeyer flask and a glass filtration funnel put together. The Chemex is a pour-over style dripper with a built-in carafe, making it very convenient for both brewing and serving coffee. The device is intended to be used with proprietary bonded paper filters, which are quite thick compared to other coffee filter materials and are again inspired by the laboratory materials he was so familiar with. While the brewer itself is somewhat unique, it’s really the filters that contribute the most to its characteristically clean and clear taste, so using a Chemex filter in another cone-style brewer will yield almost identical coffee.

Coffee Plant #

A member of the Rubiaceae family, related to cinchona and types of gardenia. A tropical flowering shrub or tree, producing fruits called "cherries" or "berries" (botanically, they are neither). Coffee plants have a woody trunk, long slender branches with many wide and flat waxy leaves. Leaf size and shape depends on species and variety, but they are often football-shaped and sometimes slightly pointed.

Commercial Coffee Brewers #

Heavy-duty appliances designed to heat water and brew foodservice coffee for the commercial market. These include restaurant operations, hotels, resorts, college and universities, business and industry, caterers and more.

Conical Burrs #

Conical burrs use an outer serrated burr and a cone-shaped center burr. The center burr spins and the sharp edges pull whole beans through the grinder. Here they are cut down into smaller and smaller pieces. The burr shape provides uniform grinding with control.

Cortado/Gibraltar/Piccolo Latte#

This is a very small drink created with espresso and steamed milk, with a light layer of foam. Not every operation will consider these three espresso beverages to be the same, but they are often prepared similarly and just as often are indistinct from each other. The Gibraltar is named specifically for the glass it is served in. Usually the overall volume of these drinks is between 5-6 fl oz, and they are often made with a double shot of espresso for a strong coffee flavor. Often they are served in small rocks glasses but may be served in a ceramic vessel as well.

Cupping #

A process used by professionals evaluating multiple samples of coffee all at once. It has a protocol which was developed for green coffee buyers to use while evaluating samples from lots, farms, mills, co-ops, etc., in as even-handed a way as possible so the coffees remain the only real variable. Cupping involves preparing 2-3 samples of each coffee in small glasses or bowls, evaluating the ground coffee aroma, adding hot water then evaluating the wet aroma, then allowing the coffee to steep, breaking the crust of coffee and evaluating the wet aroma again, then skimming the grounds off the cups and finally evaluating the samples by slurping the coffee out of a spoon.

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D #

Decaffeinated #

Decaffeinated coffee must have had at least 97% of the caffeine removed to be classified as this.

Degree of roasting #

Lightness or darkness, describes the stopping point of the roast, which has some impact on the flavor of the brewed coffee. Not all roast degree descriptions have agreed-upon criteria, and some degrees have multiple accepted names. The degree of roast is only part of what factors into coffee flavor, and the roast profile also matters some.

Drum Roaster #

A roasting device that uses a large, rotating drum set horizontally to continuously agitate the beans. Drum roasters apply heat in a variety of ways, some using gas burners to heat the drum material, some heating the air which is forced through the drum, some combining both.

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E #

Earthy #

The description, "earthy," can refer to a musty taste or aroma, like moist black earth or soil. But it’s not always a negative term. Some coffees such as Indonesian gourmet can have a pleasing spicy, earthy flavor.

Extraction #

Dissolving chemical compounds out of the coffee grounds and into water. Coffee extraction is understood to have "stages," as it contains chemical compounds with different molecular weights. Chemicals with lower molecular weights are often more polar and extract most readily – these include acids and some sugars, as well as caffeine. As the brew progresses, heavier compounds - such as complex sugars, organic acids, and compounds like phenols and other bitter-tasting alkaloids - enter the mix and shift the flavor balance. As extraction progresses, the flavor balance typically shifts from sour, to sweeter and more balanced, to more bitter, then very bitter and astringent.

  • "Good" extraction – The flavor in the coffee is pleasant, sweet, not too sour or too bitter, and is easy to drink plain (no sweetener or creamer).
  • Over-extraction – The flavor balance has gone from sweet and/or balanced to bitter, astringent, dry, chalky, oily, woody.
  • Under-extraction – Doesn’t have enough sweetness or bitterness and tastes primarily sour, grassy, bean-like, vegetal, sometimes salty.

Espresso Beverage #

A method of brewing using hot water forced under pressure through a bed of compressed finely ground coffee.  Characterized by high brew strength, thick mouthfeel, and its signature layer of foam on top, known as "crema." Crema is a fairly good indicator of the espresso quality, because formation relies on proper extraction pressure, coffee freshness, and it indicates a visual indication of flaws like channeling and over-extraction. Typically served in volumes of 1-3 fl oz.

Espresso Method #

A brewing method of hot water forced through high pressure, “espresso” is both the name of the machine and brewing style. With a relatively short brew time, (around 20-30 seconds), espresso is typically a "shot" size of around 1-2 fl oz or 30-60 mL.

Espresso + Milk #

There are many alternatives of a classic espresso and steamed milk in the world, and many similar beverages go by different names. The differences between drinks are very subtle, relying on the texture of the steamed milk, overall volume of the espresso shot, or even the type of cup the drink is served in. The definitions included for espresso and milk drinks should be considered to be loose and flexible.

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F #


The flavor of coffee is an overall perception of coffee’s aroma, acidity and body. It’s the mixture of these three characteristics.

Filter basket #

Available in a variety of sizes depending on serving size, a filter basket is a steel cylinder with holds in the bottom. Coffee is packed into this object for Espresso machines.

First Wave #

First wave coffee is defined as coffee without a clear direction. It’s not considered positive or negative, but it never receive the same sort of attention it does in today’s world. This is the coffee history, a beverage with regional styles and methods of preparation. First wave coffee could be summarized as inexpensive diner coffee, or by brands like Folgers.

Flat Burrs #

Flat burrs have a unique shape resembling two flattened doughnuts. As whole beans are fed into the grinder the inner teeth grab them and force them through to the outside burrs where they are more precisely cut. Because more friction is involved there is more heat generated with a flat burr. It also takes a stronger motor to spin the burrs and it can be quite loud.

Flat White #

Made with espresso and steamed milk. The definition of a flat white is often not agreed upon - even in Australia where the drink originates there is enough variation to be confusing. Common characteristics for the flat white include a ristretto shot or single shot, a total of 5-6 fl oz for the beverage, and only the slightest layer of milk foam being present.

Fluid bed (air) roaster #

A fluid bed roaster uses a hot column of air to both roast and agitate the beans. Not all that common in commercial use but popular with home hobby roasters as they can be found in the form of an inexpensive home appliance: the hot air popcorn maker. Fluid bed roasts tend to take far less time than other roasting methods, as the air has a good deal of access to the surface area of the beans and must be kept at significantly high temperatures to prevent "baking" the beans and progress the chemical reactions which are part of roasting.

French Press #

The French press is another classic brewing method with a rich history. French presses are common and easy to find, and similarly easy to use, only requiring a 4-5 minute steep of hot water and grounds and a plunge of the filter to press the grounds to the bottom of the device before serving. As an older and somewhat unrefined brewing method there are some areas of concern, such as the fact that even after pressing, the coffee grounds will continue to extract and alter the flavor of the coffee. Further, most press pots use a metal mesh filter which allows a good deal of mud or silt into the brewed coffee, which can cause off-flavors or poor mouthfeel. Newer revisions of the device include modernized filters with smaller hole sizes, or even dual filters to further restrict continued extraction and sediment.

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G #

Green Coffee #

Unroasted coffee beans.

Grinders #

Grinding your own beans before each batch ensures the freshest flavor. It also allows you to control the grind size, a key selling-point for those who prefer using a French press or making cold brew.

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H #

Hario V60 #

Hario’s signature cone-shaped drip brewer, named for the 60 degree angle of the cone’s profile. V60 drippers come in a variety of materials and sizes, all with the same cone angle. They are known for being somewhat unforgiving brewers thanks to the large hole opening at the base, which can be challenging to brew with without practice. The brew bed will drain very quickly, so most V60 recipes call for a finer grind than other drip cones and careful pouring technique to prevent over-dilution if water bypasses the brew bed and drains through without extracting much.

Hot Water Dispenser #

A Hot Water Dispenser Delivers Heated Water for Food and Beverage Preparations. Keep a steady supply of hot water available for coffee, hot tea, or hot chocolate with our selection of hot water dispensers. Using a commercial hot water dispenser also allows you to prepare soup, hot beverages, and oatmeal on the spot.

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I #

Immersion #

Immersion brewing is the means of coffee extraction. It refers to the immersion of the coffee within water. As it progresses, the solvent becomes more and more saturated, which means that extraction will slow as the brew progresses unless something intervenes. Immersion brewing includes French press, cold brew, some Aeropress, and cupping. Nearly all immersion methods incorporate some percolation when separating the liquid from the ground coffee. A French press introduces percolation as the plunger forces the coffee grounds to the bottom, forcing liquid up through a cake of coffee grounds in the process.

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J #


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K #

Kalita #

Kalita Wave brewers are basket-style, or truncated cone drippers which feature sloped walls and a flat bottom. They have three holes in the bottom of the dripper and use scalloped or wave-shaped paper filters, which allow even airflow all through the dripper to mitigate stalling during the drain phase. Those three holes also impose a soft limit on the maximum flow rate of water through the dripper, meaning the brew tends to steep a bit as you pour. This also means technique isn’t quite as critical with the Wave as it is with V60s or similarly fast-flowing drippers. Kalita Wave brews often accentuate sweetness and slightly mutes acidity but produce nonetheless bright and clean coffees.

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L #

Latte #

A larger drink made with espresso and steamed milk, properly called a "caffe latte" in Italian. There is no firm definition for the mixture between espresso and steamed milk, this is a highly variable beverage whose chief characteristic is the overall milky flavor. It features less foam than a traditional cappuccino with a thinner overall texture.

Lungo #

A lungo is a shot pulled longer than normal. This longer extraction increase the shot volume and may also subdue the flavors to make for a more sippable drink. In terms of ratio, a lungo is generally pulled at around 1:3 or more (grounds mass: beverage mass).

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M #

Macchiato #

Macchiato in Italian translates to "marked" or "spotted". It’s a shot of espresso with a tiny amount of steamed milk to help round out the flavor and add slight sweetness. The shot is marked with only a spoonful of foam, or the demitasse is topped up with steamed milk and may have a small latte top art design. It’s a very small beverage, between 1.5-3 fl oz.

Machine Types #

Manual, Semi-Automatic, Automatic, Superautomatic – With a long history starting from the late 1800’s, Espresso machines have a long history and as such have experienced many changes in design and construction. Early espresso machines were powered only by steam pressure but have since been designed around pistons or pumps supplying the brew pressure.

Manual Drip #

See pour-over method of brewing coffee.

Moka Pot #

Moka pots function very similarly to vacuum pots and produce a strong brewed coffee that’s somewhere between drip and espresso. A lower reservoir holds water during brewing, a basket of coffee is inserted into the middle with a siphon tube extending into the lower part of the reservoir, and an upper chamber is used to collect the brewed coffee. During brewing, the water is heated and thus builds vapor pressure in the bottom chamber. This forces hot water up through the coffee grounds, which are lightly packed and ground fairly fine to offer some resistance to the water and allow a quick extraction. The brewed coffee continues to be forced upward until it exits into the upper collection chamber. Once most of the water has been forced up, the moka pot will begin to spit bubbles of gas instead of liquid coffee, and it can be removed from the heat.

Manual espresso machines #

Use a lever action to drive a piston and force a charge of hot water through the puck. These may be Direct Lever machines, where the user supplies all the necessary force themselves, or Spring-assisted Lever machines, where the user cocks the lever to compress a spring, which then supplies the brew pressure as it decompresses. Manual Espresso machines are somewhat unique in that they allow the brew pressure to be modulated either directly or indirectly by the user, meaning that the espresso could be extracted higher or lower than 9 bars at any point in the brew process.

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N #

Normale #

A normale espresso is a standard version of a shot. In Italy a normale is 7 grams of ground coffee for a single and 14 grams for a double, pulled to around 25-30 mL for a single and 50-60 mL for a double. A modern normale has a brew ratio around 1:2 (ground coffee mass: beverage mass).

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O #

Other Coffee Species #

Far less common than arabica and robusta. However, there are some interest in cultivating them has increased in the past few decades in order to obtain more genetic diversity in coffee crops. These include but are not limited to coffea liberica, coffea charrieriana (which is naturally caffeine-free), and coffea magnistipula.

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P #

Percolation #

Percolation is to the act of moving water through soluble material. Common styles of brewing are considered to be percolation: including all drip coffee, pour-over, batch brewing, the Aeropress brewer, moka pots, even espresso. Percolation is distinct as fresh solvent is constantly added during brewing, meaning extraction can happen more quickly and also may be a little less forgiving.


Proportional, Integral, Derivative, the logical functions used by the controller to set and hold the desired temperature based on feedback from a thermocouple or RTD sensor. A digital controller typically used for setting a desired temperature in a kettle or water boiler.

Porcelain #

See Walkure Drip Brewer.

Portafilter #

A metal object with a plastic handle that holds an Espresso filter basket. Coffee is packed inside during brewing.

Pour-Over #

Pour-over brewing is essentially just brewing drip coffee by hand. Where an automatic drip coffee maker sprays or sprinkles water somewhat evenly over a bed of ground coffee, a pour-over brew features the human brewer adding coffee with a kettle by hand. This can be more effective than some automatic coffee makers in that the human can be more exacting and precise than the machine, but it can also be less effective if the human pays less attention to the brew process or brewing factors like temperature. While some pour-over recipes may vary based on preferred technique and flavor results, they generally follow the same overall recipes and ratios as their automatic alternatives.

Powdered Drink Dispenser #

See Cappuccino Dispenser.

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Q #

Quakers #

These are defective coffee beans that fail to roast properly. They remain pale-colored.

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R #

Ristretto #

A ristretto is an espresso that is pulled short and contains less water for a more concentrated, intensified drink. In brewing ratio, a ristretto is commonly described as a shot pulled at 1:1 - 1:1.5 (grounds mass: beverage mass).

Roast Profiling#

The cumulative effects of how heat and airflow are controlled during roasting, influences how quickly the beans are heated and progress through the stages of roasting. The roast profile is arguably the defining factor for how roasting contributes to the coffee’s flavor, as it determines how the chemical changes take place in the coffee, for how long, as well as when the roasting process is fully stopped.

Robusta #

Coffea canephora. Seen as inferior in flavor to arabica, often described as overly bitter, tasting of petroleum or rubber. Robusta has a naturally higher caffeine content than arabica and is also a hardier and more productive plant. Because the flavor quality is poor, it is usually used only as a small component in blended coffees and is rarely drank on its own (though some cultures do enjoy its potent and strong flavor).

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S #

Satellite Brewer #

Bulk commercial coffee brewers that brew into separate serving vessels without internal heating elements. These machines often include a separate heated docking station for remote use and merchandising in virtually any space. Satellites can be positioned around a large service area to lessen wait times and ensure every customer has access to fresh coffee.

Second Wave #

Second wave coffee is defined as a time when modern coffee shops began to appear. The modern second wave time is akin to the popular television show “Friends” who’s stars frequented the Central Perk cafe that specialized in coffee and tea beverages, such as richly flavored lattes, frothy cappuccinos, and more. Often these operations are built out for lingering with a book and laptop, and occasionally they contain space for music or poetry venues. The atmosphere is inviting and casual.

Semi-automatic machines #

Semi-automatic machines are more common. They use a pump to extract the espresso, and the user must both engage and disengage the pump manually, by pushing a button on the machine. Semi-automatic machines range from low budget to mid-to-high end and can incorporate many other features depending on price level. The main defining characteristic is that they do not have settings for controlling the volume of a shot or the time for the shot to run.

Single Cup Brewer #

A single-serve coffee container is a method for coffee brewing that prepares only enough coffee for a single portion. Example single cup brewers.

Single Origin #

Comes from a single producer, crop, or region in one country. Coffees that aren’t single-origin are typically referred to as blends, which include more than one single-origin coffee. Single-origins are also different from year-round offerings because they can be only available for certain times throughout the year. This is because most coffee is harvested once a year, and single origins when they are at their peak taste-wise. Sometimes that can be a few months, but other times it can be for almost a full year, as is the case with some Ethiopian offerings.

Siphon #

See Vacuum Pot.

Slurry #

The combination of coffee grounds and water created during the brewing process.

Slurry Temperature#

The overall temperature of the mixture at a point in time. Slurry temperatures are usually not static, even when the brewing device is insulated, as temperature loss is an aspect of coffee brewing. In contemporary specialty coffee culture, it is suggested that the slurry temperature be maintained within 195-205° F – however, this is sometimes a mis-attribution in reference to the Specialty Coffee Association of America’s Golden Cup standards. Those standards actually suggest a water temperature between 195-205° F at the moment of contact with the coffee grounds, and do not reference slurry temperature at all.

Specialty Coffee #

"Specialty" is a term for green coffees graded at 80 points or above (out of 100), which is currently the highest categorical grade of coffee achievable. To qualify as specialty coffees they must have zero Category 1 defects (rotten beans, fungus damage, etc) and fewer than five Category 2 defects (partially black, partially sour, broken beans, or insect damage) per 350 gram sample. Specialty coffees comprises under 10% of coffee grown annually in terms of market share, but represent over 50% of the US market consumption of coffee.

Spicy #

"Spicy" describes a savory or sweet flavor in coffee.  Guatemalan and Indonesian coffees often feature a spicy taste and can be compared to spices such as cinnamon, vanilla, allspice and clove.

Stale #

Often compared to a flat, cardboard taste, stale coffee may have been exposed to oxygen for too long.

Superautomatic #

Superautomatic machines are usually found in specialty stores, offices and some coffee shops. They use whole bean coffee, and run the entire brew cycle without assistance from the user. A person may simply push a button for "cappuccino" and the machine will dose the beans, grind them, brew the espresso, and steam the milk, then run a quick cleaning cycle on itself so it’s ready for the next drink.

Sweet #

The term "sweet" means the coffee emits a smooth and mild taste without harshness. Sometimes compared to a fruity taste on the tip of the tongue.

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T #

Third Wave #

Third wave coffee is where coffee is today - elevated to the culinary level, like fine wine or beer. It acknowledges that coffee is a complex beverage and requires care and attention to brew and serve on a high level. It can also provide a rich and complex experience beyond adding flavored syrups or other additives. Third wave coffee is focused on specialty coffee only and extends its focus to the entire process from the farm to the cup.

Tone #

The “tone” of coffee simply refers to the color and appearance.

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U #

Ultra High Volume Coffee Brewer #

This type of commercial coffee maker can have holding capacities as small as 3 gallons or as large as 120, and most have a hot water dispenser to allow you to make tea as well. Because this type of brewer also uses ground coffee, you have the flexibility to choose the type of coffee you'd like to offer. Often used for the hotel and banquet foodservice segments.

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V #

Vacuum Pot #

The vacuum pot is a classic method of brewing, with history dating back into the late 18th century. Modern vacuum pots have two chambers: a lower globe where water is heated, often by a flame, and an upper chamber where the coffee grounds and water will be mixed. Connected to the upper chamber is a siphon tube, which extends almost to the bottom of the globe when assembled. A rubber stopper creates a seal around the tube and the opening to the globe to ensure the steam and vapor pressure is contained. The main working principle of a vacuum brewer is that the final stage of the brewing process, called the draw down, utilizes a partial vacuum created by the lower brewing chamber to "suck" the brewed coffee down through a filter. A siphon brew begins by heating a volume of water in the lower globe, which is then sealed once the upper chamber is set into place. When the seal is created, vapor pressure will begin to build as the air inside the globe is heated, and once steam is produced the pressure inside the globe builds more. Once the pressure is sufficient, the water will begin to be forced up the siphon tube and into the upper bowl, where the coffee grounds will be mixed in and allowed to steep anywhere from 1-5 minutes. During the brewing process, the globe is left on the heat to maintain a positive vapor pressure and bubble gas up the siphon tube. Once the globe is removed from the heat, it will begin to cool, and the pressure will drop. At some point, the globe’s internal pressure will fall lower than the atmospheric pressure around it, and thus the brewed coffee will be "sucked" down through the filter at the opening of the siphon tube and back into the lower globe. Like the Clever Dripper, vacuum pot brewing starts as immersion and ends with a bit of percolation at the end, allowing for somewhat quicker brews than pure immersion styles.

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W #

Walkure #

This German-made porcelain pour-over drip brewer has a very unique design element: it features a permanent porcelain filter grid, instead of disposable paper filters. The Walkure brewers brew in a cylindrical column where the ground coffee is added directly to the brew chamber on top of the filter. It is important to select a proper coffee grind which won’t fall through the holes in the filter, though the grounds should have an easy enough time sticking together and staying in the chamber. The user will pour water over a distribution plate, whose flat surface directs the water gently to six holes around its perimeter, where water will trickle steadily onto the grounds below. where the bed of coffee compacts somewhat during brewing and acts as its own filter.

"Waves" of Coffee #

The industry acknowledges we are currently experiencing the "third wave" of coffee throughout the world, an approach to coffee preparation, presentation, and service which is unique from the two previous waves (first and second).

Winy #

Describing coffee as “winy” or “winey” refers to a hint of a taste that compares to an aged red wine. It can have a fruity essence and a rich, complex flavor.

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Z #

Zarf #

A holder or sleeve for a handleless coffee cup that allows someone to hold hot coffee without burning themselves.

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